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By the end of that decade cheap diltiazem 60 mg amex, Borel had demonstrated the studies on the coagulation of blood buy 180mg diltiazem fast delivery. The Traité de l’immunité dans les maladies infectieuses (1920) 180mg diltiazem with visa, a compound was found to be insoluble buy diltiazem 180 mg online. He was in the United some of the compound in alcohol (subsequently order diltiazem 60mg without prescription, the use of States to raise money for new medical facilities for the war- olive oil as an emulsifier proved more efficient) and drank it purchase diltiazem 60mg amex, damaged Free University of Brussels when he received word the compound subsequently appeared in his blood. After 1920, he major finding, indicating that the compound might be became interested in bacteriophage, the family of viruses that amenable to injection so as to control the immune rejection of kill many types of bacteria, publishing several articles on the transplanted organs. In 1940, Bordet retired from the directorship of the There has been a controversy as to whether Borel or Pasteur Institute of Brussels and was succeeded by his son, another Sandoz scientist (Harold Stähelin) was primarily Paul. Bordet himself continued to take an active interest in the responsible for the discovery of cyclosporin. Both were work of the Institute despite his failing eyesight and a second actively involved at various stages in the purification and test- German occupation of Belgium during World War II. Many ing of the compound, and the primary contribution is difficult scientists, friends, and former students gathered in a celebra- to assign. Nonetheless, it was Borel who first established the tion of his eightieth birthday at the great hall of the Free immunosuppressant effect of cyclosporin, during routine test- University of Brussels in 1950. Beginning in the 1980s, cyclosporin was licensed for See also Antibody and antigen; B cells or B lymphocytes; use in transplantations. Since then, hundreds of thousands of Bacteria and bacterial infection; Bacteriophage and bacterio- people have successfully received organ transplants, where phage typing; Blood agar, hemolysis, and hemolytic reactions; none would have before the discovery of cyclosporin. Immune system; Immunity; Immunization; T cells or T lym- The research of Borel and his colleagues inspired the phocytes search for other immunosupressant therapies. In recognition of his fundamental achievement to the advancement of organ transplantation, Borel received the prestigious Gairdner Award BBorel, Jean FrançoisOREL, JEAN-FRANÇOIS (1933- ) in 1986. Belgian immunologist See also Antibody and antigen; Immunosuppressant drugs Jean-François Borel is one of the discoverers of cyclosporin. The compound is naturally produced by a variety of fungus, where is acts as an antibiotic to suppress bacterial growth. BORRELIA BURGDORFERI • see LYME DISEASE Borel’s research in the late 1970s demonstrated that in addi- tion to the antibiotic activity, cyclosporin could act as an immunosupressant. This latter property of the compound has been exploited in limiting the rejection of transplanted organs BBotulism OTULISM in humans. After undergrad- Botulism is an illness produced by a toxin that is released by uate studies in that city, he studied at the Swiss Federal the soil bacterium Clostridium botulinum. In 1965, he moved to the Swiss tioning of organs and tissues that are vital to life. Research Institute Department of Medicine where he studied There are three main kinds of botulism. Contaminated years later, he joined the scientific staff at Sandoz (now food can produce the illness after being ingested. He has been director of the immunology and micro- the bacteria in the food may occur, but is not necessary for biology departments at this company. Since form of botulism is a food intoxication (as compared with food 1981, Borel has also been a professor of immunopharmacol- poisoning, where bacterial growth is necessary). Growth of the bacteria in called cyclosporin) from a sample of the fungus Beauvaria the wound leads to the production of the toxin, which can dif- nivea that was obtained during a hike by a Sandoz employee fuse into the bloodstream. The wound mode of toxin entry is who had vacationed in the United States. Finally, botu- showed that, unlike other immunosupressants then known, the lism can occur in young children following the consumption 84 WORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY Boyer, Herbert Wayne of the organism, typically when hands dirty from outdoor play production of gas.
In doing so they use a variety of distinguishing criteria comprising three broad categories: the focus and purpose of therapy order diltiazem 60mg without a prescription, the nature of the client/practitioner relationship buy diltiazem 180mg cheap, and alternative healing techniques diltiazem 60 mg lowest price. While different informants focus on different distinguishing criteria cheap diltiazem 60 mg, they all use allopathic medicine as their reference point in defining alternative healing order 180 mg diltiazem with amex. For example order diltiazem 180 mg otc, whether or not an informant’s emphasis is on attitude, caring, or time is not as important as the fact that what defines the nature of the alternative client/practitioner relationship is that it somehow differs from the negative standard of the doctor/patient relationship. Holism, a key component of these informants’ alternative model of healing, also figures prominently in their alternative model of health. Like many concepts associated with alternative health care, holism is a complex, and at times ambiguous, term. In the following chapter I examine in more detail the concepts, including holism, that make up these informants’ alternative model of health. However, this does not mean that these people see nothing distinct about alternative therapies, as is plain from the meaning they give to their model of alternative health. See also Dunfield (1996); Furnham and Bhagrath (1993); Furnham and Forey (1994); McGuire (1983); and Pawluch et al. See Saks (1997b) and Coward (1989) for a critical assessment of the argument that holism is exclusive to alternative health care. See also Fulder and Munro (1985); Furnham and Smith (1988); Glik (1988); Goldstein et al. What is understood to be alternative health varies dependent on who is giving meaning to the con- cept and in which social context that definition occurs. However, this does not mean that we can not discuss alternative health; rather, what is necessary is that we specify in what context meaning is invoked (Low 2001). In this case, the model of alternative health I discuss below is based on the subjective perspectives of Canadian lay users of alternative therapies. As I have demonstrated, the people who spoke with me sought out alternative health care to solve problems for which they found no redress in other quarters. While they were not shopping for an ideology when they ini- tially explored alternative therapies, once they began participating in alterna- tive approaches to health and healing, and through interaction with alternative practitioners and other users of alternative health care, they began to take on alternative ideologies of health. This belief system informs their alternative model of health, one that is made up of three conceptual categories: holism, balance, and control. Simply put, to be healthy is to be whole, which in turn is to be balanced, which in the end means being in, and subject to, control. ALTERNATIVE HEALTH AS PROCESS The people I spoke with see alternative health and alternative healing as concomitant ongoing processes. Health is not an achievable goal as such, but an ideal to which a lifelong healing journey takes one closer and closer. In other words, to be healthy is to be engaged in the process of healing. For example, Trudy said, “It was really more my own search for my own healing,” and Randal put it this way: 68 | Using Alternative Therapies: A Qualitative Analysis “I started my five-year search for this sort of healing, something that I’m con- stantly going to be working at. Nonetheless, these people do have a discernable model of health in mind, which they artic- ulate through the conceptual categories of holism, balance, and control. Holism Holism is the concept perhaps most often associated with alternative therapies (Furnham and Smith 1988; Lowenberg 1992; McGuire and Kantor 1987; Pawluch et al. Accordingly, it came as no surprise when all but three informants said they believe that an alternative model of health is a holistic model of health. For instance, Nora told me that alternative health “means that the person, their body, is functioning really well, in a natural way. Like many new age concepts, such as wellness or centred, the concept of holism is abstract and ambiguous. For instance, when I asked people to elaborate, most defined holism as the unity of mind, body, and spirit. Richard explained it this way: “Health is a state when you’re in line with your spiritual, physical and mental, and you’re pulling all your energies together. Balance Not only is alternative health a matter of the wholeness of the individual, but the person must also experience balance amongst the components of mind, body, and spirit (McGuire and Cantor 1987).
Multi- ple tender points discount diltiazem 60 mg with mastercard, muscle and joint soreness/tenderness order diltiazem 60 mg otc, and achiness along with fatigue are the key symptoms diltiazem 60mg line. You may recall Ellen not only noted widespread aches and pains in her muscles and joints generic diltiazem 60mg with mastercard, but she also experienced pain when her husband hugged her cheap diltiazem 60mg without prescription. Rosen- baum examined Ellen diltiazem 60mg mastercard, the ﬁrst thing he did was press on what are known as the trigger points. There are between eleven and eighteen of these points that are extremely painful when pressed in a patient with ﬁbromyalgia. Other corollary clues that conﬁrmed this diagnosis were sensitivity to light, noise, and tight clothing. There are two types of sleep: rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, also known as dream sleep, and non-REM sleep, known as nondream sleep. Non-REM sleep has four stages—one being the lightest and four being the deepest. Not achieving the right combination of sleep stages prevents the brain from producing endorphins. Endorphins are those “feel good” chemicals that get released when we are in love or after vigorous exercise. The phenomenon known as the jogger’s high—a sense of extraordinary well-being—results from the ﬂood of endorphins released postexercise. When the boxing match ends, the body ceases to function in overdrive and the boxer reaches for a painkiller. Because they are natural pain regulators, endorphins allow ease of motion in the joints and prevent the pain and soreness associated with ﬁbromyalgia. Without them, the muscle soreness, tender points, and gen- eralized body pain occur. In Ellen’s case, she had not had a solid night’s rest for more than thir- teen months after her baby was born. Although the true onset appeared at six months after her baby’s birth, the symptoms became too obvious to ignore at thirteen months. Rosenbaum ﬁrmly believed it was this sleep deprivation and the failure of her body to produce enough endorphins that caused Ellen’s condition. The reason Ellen felt better during the short time she was going to the gym was because endorphins were probably being released after her vigorous exercise routine. Ellen’s recollection of that time period helped prove this diagnosis accurate. One type of medication used to treat ﬁbromyalgia is the same class of drugs used to treat depression but administered in lower doses. These med- ications aid in achieving a better quality of sleep as well as boosting sero- tonin levels that also assist in pain management. Ellen’s depression, however, was not a primary cause but rather a secondary symptom that followed her debilitation and her inability to be perfect. Rosenbaum’s care, Ellen was treated with an exercise pro- gram and received education about her condition. In addition, she was pro- vided with a medication that restored her normal sleep pattern but was not the typical sedating and potentially addictive sleeping pill. Rosenbaum was able to diagnose this condition for Ellen when ﬁbromyalgia was known as a “wastepaper basket” diagnosis—one that was only made when everything else had been eliminated. The reason he could 98 Diagnosing Your Mystery Malady readily do so was because he himself had experienced it when he was deprived of sleep as a young intern.
Luria (1912–1991) purchase diltiazem 180 mg otc, BACTERIOPHAGE AND BACTERIOPHAGE an Italian-American biologist especially interested in how x rays cause mutations in bacteriophages buy generic diltiazem 180 mg on-line. Luria was also the TYPINGBacteriophage and bacteriophage typing first scientist to obtain clear images of a bacteriophage using A bacteriophage diltiazem 180 mg generic, or phage purchase diltiazem 60mg on-line, is a virus that infects a bacterial an electron microscope cheap diltiazem 180 mg visa. Salvador Luria emigrated to the cell order diltiazem 60 mg free shipping, taking over the host cell’s genetic material, reproducing United States from Italy and soon met Max Delbruck itself, and eventually destroying the bacterium. Most DNA phages have dou- the group of researchers that joined them studied the genetic ble-stranded DNA, whereas phage RNA may be double or sin- changes that occur when viruses infect bacteria. The electron microscope shows that phages vary scientists did not know which part of the virus, the protein or in size and shape. Filamentous or threadlike phages, discov- the DNA, carried the information regarding viral replication. It was then that scientists performed a series of experiments Scientists have extensively studied the phages that infect using bacteriophages. Some of these phages, such as the T4 phage, the Watson and Crick model of DNA explained how DNA consist of a capsid or head, often polyhedral in shape, that con- encodes information and replicates). For their discoveries con- tains DNA, and an elongated tail consisting of a hollow core, cerning the structure and replication of viruses, Luria, a sheath around it, and six distal fibers attached to a base plate. Delbruck, and Hershey shared the Nobel Prize for physiology When T4 attacks a bacterial cell, proteins at the end of the tail or medicine in 1969. In 1952, two American biologists, fibers and base plate attach to proteins located on the bacterial Norton Zinder and Joshua Lederberg at the University of wall. Once the phage grabs hold, its DNA enters the bacterium Wisconsin, discovered that a phage can incorporate its genes while its protein coat is left outside. The phage genes are then Double stranded DNA phages reproduce in their host transmitted from one generation to the next when the bac- cells in two different ways: the lytic cycle and the lysogenic terium reproduces. During the Sanger, was awarded a Nobel Prize for determining the lytic cycle in E. He started graduate work at the ing, manipulating genetic molecules for practical uses. During Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), but he trans- genetic engineering, scientists combine genes from different ferred after one year to the Rockefeller Institute, now the sources and transfer the recombinant DNA into cells where it Rockefeller University, in New York. Franklin, a molecular biophysicist specializing in host because they can grow it easily and the bacteria is well RNA viruses. One way to transfer the recombinant DNA to cells uti- completed three years postdoctoral research at the Salk lizes phages. Employing restriction enzymes to break into the Institute in La Jolla, California. There he met Renato phage’s DNA, scientists splice foreign DNA into the viral Dulbecco, who developed innovative techniques for examin- DNA. In addition, bacteriophages provide infor- collaborated in some of his viral research, and later became a mation about genetic defects, human development, and dis- full professor at the Harvard Medical School. One geneticist has developed a technique using Baltimore joined the MIT faculty, became full professor in bacteriophages to manipulate genes in mice, while others are 1972, and in 1973 was awarded a lifetime research professor- using phages to infect and kill disease-causing bacteria in ship by the American Cancer Society. In addition, microbiologists found a filamentous bacte- Prize in 1975 Baltimore continued to be honored for his work. In the mid-1970s Baltimore turned to research in molec- ular immunology, establishing a major presence in that rapidly See also Bacteria and bacterial infection; Biotechnology; Cell developing field. As a prominent figure in the scientific com- cycle (prokaryotic), genetic regulation of; Chromosomes, munity, Baltimore became outspoken about the potential risks prokaryotic; Genetic regulation of prokaryotic cells; of genetic engineering. He was concerned that the rapidly Laboratory techniques in microbiology; Phage genetics; developing techniques of molecular biology might be mis- Phage therapy; Viral genetics; Viral vectors in gene therapy; used. In 1975 Baltimore initiated a conference in which scien- Virus replication; Viruses and responses to viral infection tists attempted to design a self-regulatory system regarding experiments with recombinant DNA. In the following year the National Institutes of Health established a committee to over- BBaltimore, DavidALTIMORE, DAVID (1938- ) see federally funded experiments in the field of genetic engi- neering. Baltimore became a key link between basic molecular American microbiologist biology and the burgeoning biotechnology industry.