By J. Spike. Urbana University.
John Churchill purchase seroquel 50mg with mastercard, the first British acupuncturist discount seroquel 200 mg mastercard, used the technique in the treatment of rheuma- tism in 1821 effective 100mg seroquel. Acupuncture was even mentioned in the first edition of The Lancet in 1823 as being chiefly used in ‘diseases of the head and lower belly’ 100 mg seroquel fast delivery. In Scotland generic 200 mg seroquel visa, a random survey found that an impressive 94% of respondents in a random survey knew something about acupuncture and 25% said that they would consider using it buy seroquel 300 mg on line, although in practice only about 6% had actually done so. Principles of acupuncture In addition to the classic principles of Chinese medicine outlined above, there is one key aspect of practice still to consider. This is the theory of acupuncture points that are stimulated usually by the superficial insertion of 136 | Traditional medicine needles into the skin. Other methods of stimulation include the application of pressure and the passing of a weak electrical current (see below). A further 1000 extra points and special use points may also be identi- fied on the hands, ears and scalp. It is not known how these points were discov- ered – probably it was by observation over hundreds if not thousands of years – nor is it known exactly how many points were first identified. Acupoints cannot be identified by their appearance and no consistent features of their anatomy have been found that distinguish them from other tissues. Practice of acupuncture There is archaeological evidence that shows that the earliest acupuncture needles date back to the Stone Age, when instruments called bian were thought to have been used in China. Needles were subsequently made of many different metals: gold, silver, copper, etc. Modern acupuncturists use solid sterile disposable needles of narrow bore, about 3 cm long (although longer needles may be used at different sites). As many as 15–20 needles may be inserted superficially at the appro- priate point(s). The practitioner then gently introduces the needles a little more deeply into the muscle, rotating them between finger and thumb. Qi and blood flow throughout the meridians and this is where manipulation of the needle is critical in properly moving this flow. The arrival of qi called deqi is signified by a dull ache or tingling sensation and slight inflammation. Some practitioners may use electrical stimulation, connecting the needles to a small piece of equipment powered by batteries. Needles are left in place for up to 20 min: the patient is invited to lie back and relax. Occasionally a needle may be left in place for several days, normally situated in the ear; these so-called indwelling needles should not be used in patients with heart valve disease or who are immunocompromised. Acupuncture point selection may vary at each treatment, depending on the patient’s response. Positive trials have been criticised because of inadequate blinding, and negative trials because the intervention was not administered by properly trained practitioners or control interventions may have had analgesic effects. The panel said that acupuncture was ‘probably’ also effective in the control of nausea in early pregnancy. The British Medical Association reached a similar conclusion in their report on acupuncture. Even if they can, there is evidence that acupuncture at non-classic points, the so-called trigger points, may have analgesic effects. When the needle was ‘inserted into the skin’ participants saw and felt the needle penetration. Both sham and genuine needles were held in place with a plastic ring and surgical tape so the procedure looked identical. After the run-in period, the acupuncturists followed identical protocols for administering real or continued sham acupuncture.
Other essential glandulars include tional crisis and use the techniques of Footwork to raw brain buy 50mg seroquel free shipping, raw female complex generic seroquel 200 mg fast delivery, raw heart purchase seroquel 100 mg amex, raw counteract them seroquel 200mg with visa. Glandular order 50mg seroquel otc, or cellular cheap seroquel 200 mg line, ther- thought patterns, emotions, senses, and personal apy is often combined with the administration of a experience as the “theme” of a meditative, relax- speciﬁc amino acid and is based on the idea that ation exercise. For example, the radiation oncologist and Among the “superfoods” are green and blue-green author O. Carl Simonton successfully employed algae, chlorella, spirulina, aloe vera, barley grass, guided imagery as a technique cancer patients can wheat grass, and alfalfa. Imagery is also beneﬁcial for the treatment of of chlorophyll, the green coloration of plants that chronic headaches, back pain, allergies, hyperten- facilitates the process of photosynthesis. Photosyn- sion, gastrointestinal spasms and disease, autoim- thesis involves the light absorbed by chlorophyll as mune diseases, injuries and trauma, irregular our primary source of energy—generally, the for- heartbeat, and gynecological problems. Aloe vera juice from the succulent plant gunas are part of the Samkhya philosophy of cre- is a natural oxygenator, antiseptic, astringent, and ation, which includes the beliefs that sound is the topical treatment for burns, ulcerations, and skin guna of ether, touch is the guna of air, sight is the disorders. Green and other grasses contain large guna of ﬁre, taste is the guna of water, and smell is gunas 51 the guna of earth. Ether, air, ﬁre, water, and earth male and female, slow and fast, and dull and sharp. The When one understands the universe in these practice of Ayurveda, also called the science of daily terms, he or she can recognize characteristics of living, is rooted in the ancient Indian system of both health and illness. The Ayurvedic physician Charak estab- in Ayurveda are based on the action and reaction of lished the idea that there are 20 fundamental the 20 gunas. The German physi- oped his method and remedies and published more cian (1753–1843) who developed the theory and of his ﬁndings in Dr. Hufeland’s German pharma- practice of modern homeopathy, an alternative cology review, Journal of Practical Pharmacology medical discipline based on the concept Similia sim- and Surgery, under the title “Essay on a New Prin- ilibus curantur—”Like cures like. Born Friedrich the single dry dose and the wait-and-watch Christian Samuel in Meissen, Germany, Hahne- philosophies characteristic of homeopathy, carried mann studied medicine in Leipzig. He married into the 20th century by the prominent home- Henriette Kuchler (1764–1830), the adopted opath James Tyler Kent. Some of Hahnemann’s daughter of the owners of the Mohren-Apotheke teachings have been lost, including his views on in Dessau, and they had 11 children. Five years Hippocratic temperaments, symptomatology, after Henriette died, he married again. He is thetic constitutions, and case management buried in Père Lachaise cemetery in France. Four bronze panels on the wall por- ful and spiritual awareness of his or her own emo- tray Hahnemann in his days as a medical student, tions, issues, insights, and coping mechanisms. Developed by Ron Kurtz, author of Body- opathy” in 1808, Hahnemann also published his Centered Psychotherapy: The Hakomi Method theories in the works “Essay on a New Principle” (Mendocino, Calif. The Hellerwork program consists of eleven 90-minute sessions, each of which focuses Hay, Louise American metaphysical teacher and on a combination of physical movement and author of 18 books, including You Can Heal Your Life manipulation to reduce stress and foster energy and (Carson, Calif. Hellerwork is not rec- The Mental Causes for Physical Illness and the Meta- ommended for individuals with cancer, rheumatoid physical Ways to Overcome Them (Hay House, 1994). Herbs Hellerwork Named for the aerospace engineer have always been recognized for their various Joseph Heller, this is a type of bodywork similar to effects on health. Mint, for example, is perhaps the Rolﬁng involving deep tissue massage and “move- most common remedy for digestive problems and ment reeducation,” geared toward relieving muscu- is often an ingredient in preparations for indiges- lar tension; stress, back, neck, and shoulder pain; tion and other gastrointestinal disturbances, and sports injuries; and respiratory ailments. Heller was echinacea is known to have potent immune-stim- born in Poland in 1940, was educated in Europe, ulating properties. Although herbal medicine lost and immigrated to Los Angeles, California, at age 16. Eventually he left engineering and turned to it is a thriving business today, with hundreds of the ﬁeld of structural bodywork and bioenergetics, herbal preparations available over the counter in which led him to serve as director of Kairos, the Los health food stores, pharmacies, and supermarkets. Angeles Center for Human Development, and as the Although the federal Food and Drug Administra- ﬁrst president of the Rolf Institute. He felt that chronic ten- what herbal-preparation manufacturers can claim sion in the muscles caused the body to fall out of about their products’ scope and efﬁcacy.
Among his recordings of spells and incantations is that if you write the following three names on the patient’s forehead – kita buy 100 mg seroquel amex, zvi and lekh – while blood comes out of his nostrils it will stop immediately discount 200 mg seroquel with amex. Nachmanides believed that King Solomon had gained all the appropriate knowledge in this area from the Torah – ‘even the potency of herbs and their segulot’ buy seroquel 50 mg amex. Rabbi Bayha ben Asher (died 1340) believed that God had taught Moses the nature and occult virtue of plants and herbs that had the power to heal but could also ‘sweeten the bitter and make the bitter sweet’ 300mg seroquel overnight delivery. The principles of ‘sympathy’ order seroquel 50 mg with amex, where the effect resembles the cause cheap 300 mg seroquel, and ‘contact’, where objects that have been in contact continue to act on each other after the contact has ended, can also be found in the Jewish sources. Accordingly, we find such remedies as rubbing a stillborn baby with its placenta or eating the liver of a mad dog as a cure for the dog’s bite. Sympathy was even extended to looking at specific colours to influence the red or black humours or trying to destroy an enemy by destroying his image. As for contact, it was believed that anyone who got possession of someone’s cut hair or nail clippings could assume power over them. The name given to a person gives them some of the character of its original owner. Rabbi Jacob Emden (1697–1776) referred to a drug that heals sword wounds when the drug is in contact with the blood on the sword, even if the wounded person is now some distance away. The noted physician Tobias Hacohen (1652–1729) reported cases of family illness where brothers, even those living in different countries, developed the same illness or died at the same time. Thus the supposed antipathy between deer and snakes led to people wearing the tooth of a deer to keep snakes away. Maimonides was careful to avoid magical treatments unless there was evidence as to their efficacy and claims for their benefit could be proved, or if withholding them would cause psychological distress to the patient. Rabbi Samson Morpurgo (died 1740) noted the principle of sympathy as well as the working of specific remedies. He also noted that other ‘remedies’, whether of vegetable or animal origin, were hung on the neck or arm of the patient, who had fever, jaundice, epilepsy or dysentery, and these were to be considered segulot because doctors were aware that they were not conventional treatment. However, Morpurgo made a specific case for the use of snake products, found in the medication known as theriac, because doctors had indicated that it could be prescribed for disorders of the white humour and thus did not work by occult virtue alone. In general, however, the consumption of many of the noxious medicaments was not recommended for Jewish patients and there was a particular revulsion to the use of blood and products of vermin and reptiles. Among the popular prescriptions are many items that owe their place to tradition and long established associations such as cutting the 306 | Traditional medicine beard as a cure for sore eyes or washing being harmful to aching teeth. As a treatment for toothache salt, pepper and a little garlic were mixed, and the mixture was left on the pulse overnight. A couple of years ago the actress Gwyneth Paltrow made headlines when wearing a backless dress showing the marks from having cupping during an acupuncture treatment. Today cupping is most commonly used to treat coughs, asthma, and muscle aches and pain, especially back pain, but it has been used in cultures across the world for centuries and was especially popular in eastern European Jewish traditional medicine, where it was known as bahnkes. Cupping was especially popular as a treatment for weak and obese patients and pregnant women. Despite the enduring popularity of the procedure, the old Yiddish proverb, Es vet helfen vi a toiten bahnkes, ‘it will help like applying cups to a dead person’, indicates a more sceptical view of its efficacy. Cupping techniques vary but bahnkes involves the use of small cups containing a small amount of alcohol which is heated and a vacuum is produced by the absence of oxygen (Figure 11. This suction is thought to draw out noxious substances from the body, thus restoring the balances of bodily humors. The numbers 3, 7 and 9 were particularly efficacious and invocations used were similar for Jews and Christians with the wording adapted to the sensitivities of the patient. Sefer Hasidim, a book of mediaeval pietistic literature, records that a person who has been harmed by a demon needs to have the charm repeated nine Figure 11.
Bitemarks indicate violence buy discount seroquel 300mg, pain buy seroquel 100 mg, a struggle trusted 50mg seroquel, with the possibility of both ofensive and defensive bites order 300mg seroquel free shipping. Additionally and importantly buy seroquel 300 mg on-line, bitemarks in skin may produce a profle of the biter purchase 100 mg seroquel mastercard. If the individual and specifc char- acteristics of the teeth are recorded in skin, forensic odontologists may be Bitemarks 361 able to determine tooth position, spacing between teeth, broken or missing teeth, and other individualizing features (Figures 14. With bites in other substrates, be they foodstufs such as cheese, cookies, bologna, or chewing gum, or nonfood items, like expanded polystyrene cups, pencils, or golf tees, with almost any item that can go into the mouth, forensic dentists may be able to isolate specifc individual tooth characteristics that are found in the teeth of the suspected biter. Although bites in material other than skin do not indicate violence, they may have the ability to show greater detail of both class and specifc individual dental characteristics. Te characterization of bites in human skin in relation to the time of death of victims is another area in which bitemark evidence may prove to be valuable. As in the 1975 Marx case with the bitemark on the nose, or in other cases where the three-dimensional nature of the marks, especially the retention of indentations from the teeth, played a prominent role, a forensic odontologist may be able to ofer an opinion related to when the wound was inficted in relation to the time of death. Forensic odontologists must be very careful to not overstate the signifcance or accuracy of this fnding, and limit the opinion, if and when indicated, to “around the time of death. Advances in science when applied to bitemark analysis and interpreta- tion are very likely to provide greater assistance to the examining and testify- ing expert and to enhance the value of evidence in specifc cases. It is the responsibility of attorneys to ask the appropriate questions to get the whole truth from expert witnesses. Experts for the prosecution in a criminal bitemark case may be pressured to provide a “positive link” between the putative biter and the bitemark. With the best evidence and a limited or closed population odontologists may be able to associate the two with rea- sonable medical or dental certainty, but never with absolute certainty. Y,” “only one person in X million or billion could make such a mark,” or “indeed and without doubt”) are inappropriate and scientifcally unsupportable. Te meanings of reasonable scientifc, medical, or dental certainty are consistent with the legal phrase “beyond reasonable doubt. Determinations with reasonable dental/medical/scientifc certainty, like determinations beyond reasonable doubt, should be logically derived from the evidence or absence of evidence. As we have seen from the tragic errors of the past, a misidentifcation of a bitemark can lead to the incarceration of an innocent person and, consequently, freedom for the guilty person, who can continue to kill. Te consequences to the expert who misidentifes a bite- mark or gives improper testimony can be terrible, legally, fnancially, emo- tionally, personally, and publicly. Te expert may be subject to legal action brought by the person wrongly accused/convicted. Accounts may be written in newspapers, weblogs, magazines, and books, generating public hostility. All this is in addition to how the expert must feel knowing he was even partly responsible for the incarceration of an innocent man. Te defense expert has just as much responsibil- ity to be truthful and objective as the expert for the prosecution, but errors by defense experts do not carry the same legal, fnancial, or public burden as the errors by a prosecution expert. Defense expert errors may contribute to a guilty suspect being freed, but the defense expert will rarely be publicly humiliated or sued. Defense expert errors are perceived to be less serious than those made by prosecution experts, partly because of the belief that it is better for many guilty persons to go free than to convict one innocent man. Supreme Court ruled that the highest standard of proof is grounded on “a fundamental value determination of our society that it is far worse to convict an innocent man than to let a guilty man go free. Te burden of proof is diferent, requiring only “preponderance of evidence,” not “beyond reasonable doubt. Te expert witness will rarely be the subject of legal action afer a trial unless it can be proven he or she knew facts and lied about them. Bitemark testimony in tort cases is rare, Bitemarks 363 and it usually involves domestic cases or civil action afer a criminal case has been adjudicated.