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By S. Wilson. Mountain State University.

References to works by the same author and published within the same year can be distinguished by adding a suffix letter discount 25mg endep mastercard, for example Argyle 1983a buy endep 25mg with visa. List single author publications first cheap endep 25 mg fast delivery, before co-authored works where the single author is the first name to appear endep 25 mg cheap, for example: Argyle 1983 Argyle and McHenry 1971 purchase 50 mg endep with mastercard. Several references by the same author or authors should be listed chrono­ logically discount endep 10 mg line. Where two or more references are made to different authors to support a single point, then list authors and separate them with a semicolon, for ex­ ample: (Flesch 1948; Gunning 1952). Full references are provided in an alphabetical list at the end of the work. This list will contain all references contained within the main body of the text, for example: Polit, D. For books: ° author’s last name ° initials ° date of publication ° title ° edition if applicable ° place of publication ° Publisher. For edited books: ° editor’s last name ° initials ° date of publication ° title ° edition if applicable ° place of publication ° publisher. Articles in journals have the following order: ° author’s last name ° initials ° date of publication ° title of article ° title of journal ° volume and part number of journal ° pages (inclusive). For official reports: ° name of the government department ° date of publication ° title of report ° reference number ° place of publication ° publisher. For theses: ° author’s last name ° initials ° date of publication ° title of thesis ° type of thesis (MSc, PhD) ° Name of academic institution where thesis was submitted. For papers from the proceedings of a conference: ° last name of author ° initials ° names of editors ° year of publication ° title of paper DISSERTATIONS 201 ° ‘In:’ ° title of conference proceedings ° place of conference ° date of conference ° inclusive page numbers ° place of publication ° publisher. For an unpublished conference paper: ° last name of author ° initials ° year paper presented ° title of paper ° ‘Presented at:’ ° title of conference ° place of conference ° date of conference ° inclusive page numbers ° ‘Unpublished’. For a newspaper article (unsigned): ° name of newspaper ° date of publication ° title of article ° page numbers. For a personal communication (information given to you informally, for example by phone or by letter): ° last name of the communicator ° initials ° date on which communication took place, followed by ° ‘Personal Communication’. Information in the reference list is always given in full; however, some references may be abbreviated in the text: ° two authors – both names are used ° more than two authors – give the name of the first author plus ‘et al. The Vancouver style The Vancouver style is often favoured in nursing publications. These numbers cor­ respond with the reference list provided at the end of the book or article. This list is organised according to the assigned number instead of being arranged alphabetically, for example: 3 ‘Use question stems (3)’ or ‘Use question stems’ Note that the numbers appear either in brackets or in an elevated position. References to more than one source would use inclusive numbers, for example 2–5. References to any figure or table must be given if you are directly refer­ ring to this, for example (3 Figure 4. Essentials of Nursing Research: Methods, Appraisal and Utilization (5th edition). Note that the type and order of information in the reference list is the same as the Harvard style except that the date of publication is placed at the end of the journal title or at the end of the whole entry for books. Referencing styles vary between academic institutions, journals and publishing houses. Always check out the guidelines before you start com­ piling your reference list. Entering the details using the recommended for­ mat right at the start of your project will save you a lot of editing time later. Regardless of which style of referencing you use there must be suffi­ cient information in the text to enable the reader to track the source in the reference list. This list should contain information about all of the material (both written and unwritten) used by the writer to prepare the composi­ DISSERTATIONS 203 tion.

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However purchase endep 10 mg fast delivery, if you wish to pursue any of these topics discount 50mg endep overnight delivery, some of the useful publications are listed below under the relevant topics order endep 10mg. Qualitative research Over recent years there has been a great deal of innova- tion in the use of qualitative methodologies endep 75mg generic. Listed below are some of the more traditional texts and a selection of the newer buy generic endep 10 mg on-line, innovative texts purchase endep 75 mg otc. Before you de- cide which would be the most appropriate methods for your research, you need to find out a little more about these tools. This chapter gives a description of the meth- ods of interviewing, focus groups, questionnaires and par- ticipant observation. Chapters 7–10 will go on to describe in detail how to use each of these methods. The most common of these are unstructured, semi-structured and structured interviews. If you want to find out about other types of interview, relevant references are given at the end of this chapter. Unstructured interviews Unstructured or in-depth interviews are sometimes called life history interviews. This is because they are the fa- voured approach for life history research. In this type of interview, the researcher attempts to achieve a holistic un- derstanding of the interviewees’ point of view or situation. For example, if you want to find out about a Polish man’s experiences of a concentration camp during the war, 27 28 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS you’re delving into his life history. Because you are unsure of what has happened in his life, you want to enable him to talk freely and ask as few questions as possible. It is for this reason that this type of interview is called unstruc- tured – the participant is free to talk about what he or she deems important, with little directional influence from the researcher. As the researcher tries to ask as few questions as possible, people often assume that this type of interviewing is the easiest. Re- searchers have to be able to establish rapport with the par- ticipant – they have to be trusted if someone is to reveal intimate life information. Also, some people find it very difficult to remain quiet while another person talks, sometimes for hours on end. Researchers need to remain alert, recognising important information and probing for more detail. They need to know how to tactfully steer someone back from totally irrelevant digressions. Also, it is important to realise that unstructured interviewing can produce a great deal of data which can be difficult to analyse. Semi-structured interviews Semi-structured interviewing is perhaps the most com- mon type of interview used in qualitative social research. In this type of interview, the researcher wants to know specific information which can be compared and con- trasted with information gained in other interviews. To do this, the same questions need to be asked in each inter- HOW TO CHOOSE YOUR RESEARCH METHODS / 29 view. However, the researcher also wants the interview to remain flexible so that other important information can still arise. For this type of interview, the researcher produces an in- terview schedule (see Chapter 7).

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In 1923 cheap 75mg endep otc, Paul married Anne Laurel McNeill purchase endep 25mg, Paul was vice president of the American who had been an army nurse in World War I order 50 mg endep fast delivery, Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons in 1941 discount 25 mg endep with amex, serving at one time in Evacuation Hospital No buy generic endep 10 mg online. They were devoted part- also the first president of the Pittsburgh Orthope- ners and had two sons purchase 10 mg endep amex, Paul Jr. Both Paul and David became of Medicine, and a member of the American orthopedic surgeons, and were associated with Orthopedic Association (1941), the Société Inter- their father in practice before he retired to Fort nationale de Chirurgie Orthopédique et de Lauderdale, Florida. Traumatologie (SICOT) (1948), the American College of Surgeons, and the Latin American Society of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology. Paul had a great love for surgery and was always considered an excellent technician. He was best known for two operations: one, a barrel- stave graft for ununited fractures and bone cysts (1927); and the other, removal of the destroyed bone in the femoral head in coxa plana and packing of the cavity with bone chips (1928). The latter operation he performed for many years before it was reported in the literature. In his hands the results seemed to be better than those reported by others. This procedure was very 318 Who’s Who in Orthopedics sity and chief of the orthopedic service at Mercy Hospital in Iowa City. Steindler’s interest spanned the whole field of orthopedic surgery, and he wrote important essays on almost all aspects of the specialty. He adhered to sound biologic principles; he discouraged fads but was always on the lookout for new ideas. With his knowledge of Latin and of most of the western European languages, together with his enormous capacity for work, he acquired a vast medical culture. Steindler was honored by many of the medical and surgical societies of North and South America and of Europe. Among these honors he prized very highly the presidency of the American Orthopedic Association in 1933 and his election as honorary fellow of the Royal College of Sur- geons and honorary member of the Royal Society of Medicine in 1954. Steindler made excellent use of the facilities Arthur STEINDLER that he developed in Iowa City. An enlightened 1878–1959 state legislature pioneered in the field of a com- plete public program for the crippled indigent. As the population of the State of Iowa is fairly stable, Arthur Steindler was born in Graslitz, a town follow-up of cases and end-result studies of new north west of Prague, on June 22, 1878. In all his pub- early youth his family moved to Vienna, where he lications one encounters a rare combination of a pursued his undergraduate and graduate studies. In 1907, he came to the United States hip joint and the motion of the leg for the correc- and, until 1910, practiced orthopedic surgery in tion of deformities of the body by attaching a Chicago, where he worked also at the Home for thigh piece to the pelvic belt of a body brace. The Crippled Children and was associated with John thigh piece was connected by a hinge with the Ridlon. In 1910, he moved to Des Moines, Iowa, brace and braced the leg by means of a padded and became professor of orthopedic surgery at ring above the knee. In 1914, he married see one of Steindler’s main ideas in the treatment Louise Junk, whom he had met in Chicago while of scoliosis, which he improved greatly later on; she was working as a registered nurse at the Home that is, the development of a counter curve in the for Crippled Children. In that same year Steindler lumbar spine to improve the body alignment in a became an American citizen. Iowa City to develop the Department of Ortho- In 1917, he described his stripping operation pedic Surgery of the State University of Iowa. In his forthright Within a growing university in this small mid- fashion, he recommended this operation “because western town, he found a congenial intellectual it remedied the trouble to the extent to which the atmosphere and there spent the rest of his very contracture of the plantar fascia and the superfi- productive life. He served as professor and head cial layer of the musculature of the sole are of the Department of Orthopedic Surgery of the responsible. In The Treatment of until the time of his death (1959), he was distin- Pes Cavus (1921), he analyzed the muscle imbal- guished service professor emeritus of the univer- ance that produced claw foot and advocated the 319 Who’s Who in Orthopedics correction of the severe skeletal deformity by of the wrist and the fingers. For the paralytic hand, cuneiform osteotomy of the dorsum of the foot as he advised tendon transplants about the wrist if a complementary procedure to the plantar strip- muscles of sufficient strength were available. In a paper in 1928, he drew on his Failing this, he recommended fusion of the wrist.

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Recognized associations of akathisia include Parkinson’s disease and neuroleptic medication (acute or tardive side effect) order endep 25 mg visa, suggesting that dopamine depletion may contribute to the pathophysiology; dopamine depleting agents (e generic 50 mg endep fast delivery. Treatment by reduction or cessation of neuroleptic therapy may help endep 75mg low price, but can exacerbate coexistent psychosis 50 mg endep. Centrally acting β-blockers order endep 25 mg otc, such as propranolol endep 25 mg overnight delivery, may also help, as may anticholinergic agents, amantadine, clonazepam, and clonidine. Cambridge: CUP, 1995 Cross References Parkinsonism; Tic - 11 - A Akinesia Akinesia Akinesia is an inability to initiate voluntary movements. More usually in clinical practice there is a difficulty (reduction, delay), rather than complete inability, in the initiation of voluntary movement, perhaps better termed bradykinesia, reduced amplitude of movement, or hypokinesia. These difficulties cannot be attributed to motor unit or pyramidal system dysfunction. Akinesia may coexist with any of the other clinical features of extrapyramidal system disease, partic- ularly rigidity, but the presence of akinesia is regarded as an absolute requirement for the diagnosis of parkinsonism. Hemiakinesia may be a feature of motor neglect of one side of the body (possibly a motor equivalent of sensory extinction). Bilateral akinesia with mutism (aki- netic mutism) may occur if pathology is bilateral. Pure akinesia, with- out rigidity or tremor, may occur: if levodopa-responsive, this is usually due to Parkinson’s disease; if levodopa-unresponsive, it may be the harbinger of progressive supranuclear palsy. Neuroanatomically, akinesia is a feature of disorders affecting: Frontal-subcortical structures (e. Neurophysiologically, akinesia is associated with loss of dopamine projections from the substantia nigra to the putamen. Pathological processes underpinning akinesia include: neurodegeneration (e. However, many parkinsonian/ akinetic-rigid syndromes show no or only partial response to these agents. European Neurology 1996; 36(suppl1): 9-12 Cross References Akinetic mutism; Bradykinesia; Extinction; Frontal lobe syndromes; Hemiakinesia; Hypokinesia; Hypometria; Kinesis paradoxica; Neglect; Parkinsonism - 12 - Akinetopsia A Akinetic Mutism Akinetic mutism is a “syndrome of negatives,” characterized by lack of voluntary movement (akinesia), absence of speech (mutism), lack of response to question, and command, but with normal alertness and sleep-wake cycles (cf. Frontal release signs, such as grasping and sucking, may be present, as may double incontinence, but there is a relative paucity of upper motor neurone signs affecting either side of the body, suggest- ing relatively preserved descending pathways. Pathologically, akinetic mutism is associated with bilateral lesions of the “centromedial core” of the brain interrupting reticular-cortical or limbic-cortical pathways but which spare corticospinal pathways; this may occur at any point from frontal lobes to brainstem: anterior cingulate cortex (medial frontal region) paramedian reticular formation, posterior diencephalon, hypo- thalamus Other structures (e. These pathologies may be vascular, neoplastic, or structural (sub- acute communicating hydrocephalus). Akinetic mutism may be the final state common to the end-stages of a number of neurodegenera- tive pathologies. Disturbances of consciousness with lesions of the brain stem and diencephalon. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 1971; 34: 693-698 Ross ED, Stewart RM. Akinetic mutism from hypothalamic damage: successful treatment with dopamine agonists. Neurology 1981; 31: 1435-1439 Cross References Abulia; Akinesia; Blink reflex; Catatonia; Coma; Frontal lobe syn- dromes; Frontal release signs; Grasp reflex; Locked-in syndrome; Mutism Akinetic Rigid Syndrome - see PARKINSONISM Akinetopsia Akinetopsia is a specific inability to see objects in motion, the percep- tion of other visual attributes, such as color, form, and depth, remain- ing intact. This statokinetic dissociation may be known as Riddoch’s phenomenon; the syndrome may also be called cerebral visual motion blindness. Such cases, although exceptionally rare, suggest a distinct - 13 - A Alexia neuroanatomical substrate for movement vision, as do cases in which motion vision is selectively spared in a scotomatous area (Riddoch’s syndrome). Akinetopsia reflects a lesion selective to area V5 of the visual cortex.

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